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Even in Antiquity diamond was known as the harest substance on
Earth.  The hardest of all knowngems, diamonds are crystals of pure carbon-tansparent in texture, with a hardness of 10 on the Moh's scale.  Due to their brilliance and clarity, diamonds have been used for the last 600 years as signs of romantic love and fidelity.

Diamonds have been treasured as gemstones since their use as religious icons in ancient India. The popularity of diamonds has risen since the 19th century because of increased supply, improved cutting and polishing techniques, growth in the world economy, and innovative and successful advertising campaigns.

The most familiar use of diamonds today is the engagement ring.  They are almost universally excepted throughout the world as the symbol love and devotion.

The refraction and dispersion of white light into spectral colors are the primary gemological characteristics of gem diamonds. In the 20th century, experts in gemology have developed methods of grading diamonds and other gemstones based on the characteristics most important to their value as a gem. Four characteristics, known informally as the four Cs, are now commonly used as the basic descriptors of diamonds: these are carat, cut, color, and clarity